¿3 o 15 gotas? ¿2 o 5 sobrecitos? ¿Cuál es la medida correcta y segura de edulcorantes que se pueden consumir diariamente?

Ésta es una pregunta común no solo entre consumidores, sino también entre especialistas en nutrición.

Elaine Moreira, nutrióloga y miembro del Consejo Consultivo de la Asociación Brasileña de Asistencia a Personas con Diabetes, recomienda:


“Algunos profesionales todavía usan el índice de ingesta diaria admitida (IDA) recomendable como el valor máximo para consumir algunos alimentos y bebidas”.

Dijo que esta tasa de seguridad se estableció de forma conservadora.

Además, toma en cuenta patrones alimenticios de gente vulnerable como menores de edad, embarazadas y adultos mayores.

Aprobación de estrictos criterios

 Los edulcorantes son sustancias que en pequeñas cantidades brindan el mismo sabor del azúcar con pocas o cero calorías, explica Elaine Moreira.

La especialista señala que, antes de consumirlos, estos productos se someten a rigurosos análisis por parte de agencias regulativas a nivel internacional.

Estas incluyen el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios (JECFA).

Además de la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) de los Estados Unidos.

Por esta razón, los estudios clínicos con edulcorantes son tan rigurosos como aquellos que la industria farmacéutica realiza para lanzar al mercado un nuevo medicamento.

Dijo que “es un proceso largo y costoso, con análisis periódicos de farmacocinética, metabolismo, toxicidad, entre otros”.

Cómo se calcula la ingesta diaria admitida  

Es gracias a los resultados de estos estudios que se conoce la dosis segura de consumo o el nivel sin efecto adverso observable (NSEAO).

Sin embargo, la experta de la ANAD señala que ésta aún no es la dosis correcta a liberar para consumo humano.

Ya que las pruebas se realizaron en animales y en un laboratorio, se aplicó una fórmula que incrementa aún más el margen de seguridad para consumo humano.

Esta consiste en dividir el valor del NSEAO obtenido entre 100.

El índice de ingesta diaria admitida (IDA) aceptable es el resultado de esta división.

Por lo tanto, se define el IDA como la cantidad estimada de un químico puede consumirse diariamente durante la vida de una persona”, explicó.

Según la Fundación de Salud Británica, el IDA es la cantidad estimada por kilogramo de peso corporal que una persona puede consumir cada día durante toda una vida sin riesgo.

Esto tiene un enorme margen de seguridad, lo que hace improbable que la dieta de cualquier individuo pueda alcanzar este nivel.

Por ejemplo, en el caso del aspartame, un adulto tendría que consumir 14 latas de una bebida sin azúcar todos los días para alcanzar el IDA.

Asumiendo que el edulcorante se usó en la bebida al nivel máximo permitido.

En la práctica, la mayoría de las bebidas usan aspartame en combinación con otros edulcorantes para que el nivel sea considerablemente más bajo.

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